All About Uterine Cancer 


The pear-shaped uterus (womb) is hollow and located between the bladder and rectum in the pelvis. Uterus is the organ where a baby grows during pregnancy. 

The most common cancer developing within the female reproductive system is uterine cancer. Uterine cancer begins when healthy or normal cells in the uterus change and grow rapidly out of control, developing a tumor mass. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. 


  • Vaginal bleeding between periods before menopause 
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting post menopause, even a slight amount 
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramping  
  • Thin white or clear vaginal discharge after menopausal 
  • Heavy or frequent vaginal bleeding if you’re older than 40 


The leading cause of uterus cancer is having a high level of a hormone called estrogen. 

You may have high levels of estrogen if the below conditions: 

  • Obesity 
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) 
  • Not pregnant at least once 
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) 
  • Menopause after the age of 55 

Risk Factors: 

Your risk of getting uterus cancer increases by the following: 

  • Diabetes 
  • Family history of uterus cancer 
  • Certain medications 
  • Radiotherapy on pelvis 


Your doctor performs the following tests to confirm the diagnosis: 

  • Physical examination: to check your abdomen for any swelling  
  • Pelvic examination: to check the inside of the vagina and uterus 
  • Pelvic ultrasound: to study the uterus and ovaries 
  • Imaging tests: CT, MRI scans, and transvaginal ultrasound to get detailed pictures of the vagina 

Other tests, such as endometrial biopsy, etc., are done if needed to confirm the diagnosis. 


Your treatment plan depends on the type of cancer and your overall health. Treatment options may include: 

  • Chemotherapy: uses powerful drugs to destroy cancer cells 
  • Radiation therapy: uses targeted radiation beams to kill cancer cells 
  • Hormone therapy: gives hormones or blocks them to treat cancer 
  • Immunotherapy: helps your immune system fight cancer 
  • Targeted therapy: uses medications to target specific cancer cells to stop the multiplication 

Precautions to reduce the risk of uterine cancer 

  • Maintain a healthy weight 
  • Be active and perform regular exercise 
  • Eat healthy food 
  • Talk to your doctor about which contraceptive is best for you 
  • Talk to your doctor before taking hormone replacement therapies 

Uterine cancer is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that affects many women around the world. It is important to understand the risk factors and symptoms of uterine cancer and to seek medical attention promptly if any concerns arise. Early detection and treatment can greatly increase the chances of successful recovery and improved quality of life. With ongoing research and advancements in medical technology, there is hope for continued progress in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine cancer. Ultimately, raising awareness and promoting regular screenings can help to reduce the incidence and impact of uterine cancer, and improve the overall health and wellbeing of women everywhere.